Crystallography is the science that explores the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal. Within the past century, crystallography has been a driving force in understanding materials; from snowflakes or sandstone in the nature to crystals prepared in laboratories. With crystallography it has been possible to investigate and understand the basic principles of biological processes and thereby contributed to major advances in drug development.
The crystal’s structure can be determined using X-ray, neutron, or electron diffraction techniques. That can be done because the beam is diffracted by the atoms in the crystal. By measuring the angles and intensities of the diffracted beams, it is possible to determine the atomic and molecular structure.